Tax Planning

Charitable Giving, Part 4: Tax-Smart Ways to Give to Charity (Part 2)

Tax Efficient Giving Strategies

In my last article, I shared a few charitable giving strategies that can help you be your generous self while at the same time being tax smart. In part four of this four-part series, I continue that theme and offer some final thoughts on tax-efficient giving.

Qualified Charitable Distributions

A Qualified Charitable Distributions (QCD) allows IRA owners above age 70 ½ to transfer up to $100,000 directly to charity each year. One of the benefits of donating via a QCD is that you can give to your favorite charity while potentially reducing your taxable income.

In addition, a QCD can satisfy all or part of your required minimum distribution (RMD) once you reach RMD age. This benefit makes it an especially tax-efficient giving strategy for people who have other income sources and don’t necessarily need their RMD.  

Keep in mind that you must satisfy a few key rules for a QCD to be a non-taxable distribution.

Most importantly, the IRS considers the first dollars out of an IRA to be your RMD until you meet your annual requirement. To get the full tax benefit of a QCD, be sure to donate the funds directly from your IRA to charity before making any other withdrawals from your account.

In addition, your IRA custodian will require you to complete and sign a form that details your QCD intention. Then, the custodian will send a check to the charity of your choice.

In some cases, your custodian may allow you to write checks against your IRA. Just be aware that your checks must clear before year-end, so it pays to plan ahead.

Charitable Gift Annuities

A Charitable Gift Annuity is a tax-efficient giving strategy where an individual makes an irrevocable transfer of money or property to a charity. In return, the charity pays the individual a fixed income for the rest of their life or a specific term. The fixed payment amount is based on several factors, including the donor’s age, the donation amount, and current interest rates.

In addition, the donor receives a tax deduction for the initial donation and potential tax-free income from the annuity payments. When the donor dies, the charity retains the remaining assets for its mission.

Here are some things to keep in mind when donating to a Charitable Gift Annuity:

  • The gift is irrevocable.
  • Annuity payments are fixed and don’t adjust for inflation.
  • The annuity payments may be lower than a comparable annuity that is not charitable.

Charitable Remainder Trusts (CRTs)

A Charitable Remainder Trust (CRT) is a “split interest” giving vehicle that allow donors to contribute assets to a trust and receive a partial tax deduction. The trust’s assets are then divided between a non-charitable beneficiary (who receives a potential income stream for a term of years or life) and one or more charitable beneficiaries (who receive the remainder of the assets).

There are two types of CRTs: Charitable Remainder Annuity Trusts (CRATs) and Charitable Remainder Unitrusts (CRUTs). Each has its own distribution method.

CRTs have several benefits, including the preservation of highly appreciated assets, income tax deductions, and tax exemption on the trust’s investment income. In addition, you can donate a variety of assets to a CRT, including cash, securities, closely held stock, real estate, and other complex assets.

CRTs can also be established by will to provide for heirs with the remainder going to charities of the donor’s choosing.

Final Thoughts on Tax-Efficient Giving Strategies

Qualified Charitable Distributions, Charitable Gift Annuities, and Charitable Remainder Trusts are all potentially tax-efficient giving strategies that can help you achieve your philanthropic goals. Yet they are also complex and may not be right for everyone.

If you’re considering one of these strategies or are looking for more tax-smart giving ideas, be sure to consult an attorney, tax expert, and/or financial planner to determine which strategies make sense for you. In the meantime, please visit our Resources page for more information on this and other financial planning topics.

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Charitable Giving, Part 3: Tax-Smart Ways to Give to Charity (Part 1)

Tax-Smart Ways to Give to Charity

If you’ve read the first two articles in this blog series, perhaps you’ve put some thought into how much you want to give to charity each year and to whom. In the second half of this series, we’ll discuss tax-smart ways to give to charity. Tax laws can be dense, so bear with me as I explain the strategies as clearly as possible!

The first thing to know about charitable giving and taxes is that you must itemize on Schedule A of Form 1040 to deduct your charitable donations for the year.

Your total itemized deductions must exceed the standard deduction for you to reap the tax benefit of giving to charity. In 2023, the standard deduction is $13,850 for single filers and married couples filing separately, $27,700 for joint filers, and $20,800 for heads of household.

Fortunately, if you typically take the standard deduction and the amount you give to charity each year doesn’t push you over the threshold to itemize, there are strategies you can employ to maximize your tax savings.

To maximize your tax savings, consider the following tax-smart ways to give to charity:

#1: Bunching

Suppose you’re a non-itemizer but get close to the standard deduction because you max out the State and Local Tax (SALT) deduction at $10,000. Then, you may want to consider a strategy referred to as “bunching.”

How Bunching Works

Bunching is a tax-smart way to give to charity where taxpayers combine or “bunch” their charitable donations into one tax year so they can itemize their deductions.  

Suppose a single taxpayer usually gives $3,000 to charity annually. Meanwhile, their other qualifying itemized deductions (such as state and local taxes, mortgage interest, and medical expenses) amount to $10,000 for a total of $13,000 in deductions.

Thus, it would make sense for this taxpayer to take the standard deduction of $13,850 and not itemize. But let’s say instead they give two years of their charitable budget, or $6,000, in one year.

In this case, they would itemize since their total deductions ($16,000) exceed the standard deduction. If this person is in the 24% tax bracket, their tax savings from charitable donations would be $516 for the year.

This strategy or something similar can be repeated over time, creating multi-year tax savings.

#2: Donor-Advised Funds as a Tax-Smart Way to Give to Charity

In the above example, we assumed the taxpayer wrote a total of $6,000 in checks and mailed them to their preferred charities in one year. Then, they skipped donating to charity in year two.

But there are other tax-smart ways to give to charity that can be even more financially advantageous than bunching and allow for giving each year. One example is to utilize a donor-advised fund (DAF).  

How DAFs Work

A DAF is a registered 501(c)(3) organization that can accept cash donations, appreciated securities, and other non-cash assets. Thus, if you hold highly appreciated securities in a taxable investment account, you may benefit greatly from donating to a DAF.

Here’s why. Suppose instead of writing checks for $6,000 to various charities, the same taxpayer in the example above transfers $12,000 worth of Apple (AAPL) stock with a cost basis of $35/share into a DAF. The stock is worth $160/share on the day of the donation.

The taxpayer can take a tax deduction of $12,000 (the current market value of the shares they donate) on that year’s tax return. They also avoid paying the capital gains taxes they would have incurred by selling the stock outright. This amounts to a savings of over $1,400 ($9,375 gain x 15% long-term capital gains tax rate).

Once they donate their shares to a DAF, the fund sponsor can sell the shares tax-free. The taxpayer can then invest the proceeds within the DAF and let the funds grow tax-free over time. In addition, they can designate which charities they want to receive grants from the DAF going forward.

Like bunching, donating to a DAF allows you to take a potentially large tax deduction in the year you make the donation. Yet unlike bunching, you don’t have to decide which charities to donate to right away. Instead, you can donate your $3,000 as planned each year from funds in your DAF.

Key Advantages of DAFs

  • Flexibility: Donors can recommend distributions to multiple charities over time without having to manage individual grants to each organization.
  • Tax benefits: Donors can claim an immediate tax deduction for the full amount of their donation, subject to certain limitations.
  • Investment management: DAFs typically offer a range of investment options and professional management services to help grow the value of the donations.
  • Privacy: Donors can choose to remain anonymous when making recommendations for grants, if desired.
  • Legacy: DAFs can provide a way for donors to involve their family in philanthropy and pass down charitable values and traditions to future generations.

Limitations of DAFs

Keep in mind that DAFs are not free. According to a 2021 study by National Philanthropic Trust, the average total fee for DAFs was 0.96% of assets per year. This fee includes administrative fees, investment management fees, and any other fees the DAF provider charges.

In addition, DAFs come with a number of rules, including minimum balance requirements, minimum grant requirements, deadlines, and grant approvals.

Many DAF providers require a minimum initial contribution ranging from $1,000 to as much as $25,000. Once you establish the fund, there’s typically a minimum balance requirement between $5,000 and $25,000. If you fail to meet these minimums, the provider may change additional fees or penalties.

In addition, some DAF providers may have minimum grant requirements ranging from $50 to $250 or more. And because most people actively grant at the end of the year, there may be deadlines for making grants to ensure timely processing.

Lastly, DAF providers must approve grants before disbursement to ensure the recipient is an eligible charitable organization and that the grant doesn’t violate IRS rules or regulations. However, disapproval of a grant is rare.

Despite these limitations, the potential benefits make DAFs a tax-smart way to give to charity worth considering in many cases.

Popular DAF Providers

While there are many donor-advised funds (DAFs) in the United States, the most popular providers tend to be large financial institutions and nonprofit organizations. Examples include:

  1. Fidelity Charitable: Fidelity Charitable is the largest DAF provider in the US, with over $35 billion in assets and more than 200,000 donor-advised funds.
  2. Schwab Charitable: Schwab Charitable is the second-largest DAF provider in the US, with over $20 billion in assets and more than 180,000 donor-advised funds.
  3. Vanguard Charitable: Vanguard Charitable is a DAF provider affiliated with the investment firm Vanguard, with over $14 billion in assets and more than 80,000 donor-advised funds.
  4. National Philanthropic Trust: National Philanthropic Trust is a nonprofit organization that offers DAFs and other philanthropic services, with over $8 billion in assets and more than 18,000 donor-advised funds.
  5. Silicon Valley Community Foundation: Silicon Valley Community Foundation is a community foundation that offers DAFs and other charitable services to donors in the Silicon Valley region and beyond, with over $13 billion in assets and more than 4,000 donor-advised funds.
  6. DonorsTrust: DonorsTrust is a nonprofit organization that offers DAFs and other philanthropic services to donors who prioritize limited government, personal responsibility, and free enterprise.

It’s worth noting that there are many other DAF providers in the US, and your choice of provider will depend on your specific philanthropic goals and financial situation. You must do your due diligence to understand the fees, rules, and requirements if you’re considering this tax-smart way to give to charity.

Next: Tax-Smart Ways to Give to Charity Part 2

Hopefully you now have a better understanding of why bunching and DAFs can be tax-smart ways to give to charity. In the final article of this blog series, I’ll share a few more giving strategies that can help you maximize your impact and tax savings.

In the meantime, please visit our Resources page for more information on this topic and beyond.

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Charitable Giving, Part 2: Which Charitable Organizations Should You Donate To?

Which Charitable Organizations to Donate To

This article is part two in a four-part blog series focused on charitable giving and will address the question: Which charitable organizations should you donate to?

Once you’ve decided how much money to give to charity each year, you can focus on the recipients. According to Giving USA Foundation, the types of charities that tend to receive the most donations are:

  • Religious organizations
  • Educational institutions
  • Human services such as food banks, disaster relief organizations, and homeless shelters
  • Health-related charities such as hospitals and medical research centers
  • Arts and culture charities such as museums, orchestras, or theatre groups

Many people tend to respond to end-of-year donation solicitations they receive by email or mail and give to the same organizations every year. But if you want to be more proactive about your giving, spend some time thinking about the issues or causes you care about and find the organizations that impact those issues or causes most.

Smaller organizations may have a greater need for your dollars than larger organizations. As such, you may want to take advantage of opportunities to give to local organizations, such as theatre or educational groups.

For example, I donate to a local organization called Foodwise, whose mission is “to grow thriving communities through the power and joy of local food.” Not only do I admire their mission, but I was also previously a board member and get a lot of pleasure from attending their events.

Another example is a client of mine who donates to a swim club she belongs to that’s organized as a 501(c)(3) organization. The swim club was renovating its clubhouse, so she donated dollars specifically to help get this project completed. Another client gives to a hiking club because she’s an avid hiker. 

A Word About 501(c)(3) Organizations When Deciding Which Charitable Organizations to Donate To

Suppose you’re eligible for tax deductions for charitable giving. (Ordinally, you must itemize deductions on Schedule A of your Federal Tax return to receive a tax benefit.) In that case, you should ensure that the organization you donate to is a 501(c)(3) organization.

A 501(c)(3) organization is a tax-exempt nonprofit in the U.S. that must operate exclusively for religious, charitable, scientific, literary, or educational purposes. It addition, the organization must not engage in political or lobbying activities or provide private benefits to any individual or group.

It’s also important to note that if you contribute money through crowdfunding platforms such as GoFundMe, Kickstarter, or Indiegogo, these donations are typically not tax deductible. That’s because the individual fundraising campaigns aren’t tax-exempt organizations. 

Investigating the Charitable Organizations You Donate To

There are several ways to investigate charities to ensure they’re using your charitable donations properly.

One well known charity evaluation organization is Charity Navigator, which provides ratings and financial information on thousands of nonprofits and assigns a rating based on their performance.

Another is GuideStar, which allows you to search for nonprofits by location, mission, or types of work. 

How Many Organizations Should You Donate To?

Lastly, many clients ask me if it’s better to give a large amount of money to one organization or spread their donations among several organizations. I’ve found that this is a personal decision.

Some people care about so many things that they want to spread their money widely. Meanwhile, others prefer to have a more significant impact on just a couple of organizations.

One thing I know for sure: try and give at times other than just the end of the year. The charities will appreciate it, plus you won’t get that anxious feeling that you haven’t done enough on December 31. In addition, if you write checks or take advantage of Qualified Charitable Distributions (QCDs), you’re more likely to meet the deadline to get a tax deduction in the year you donate.

Next: Giving Strategically

The first half of this blog series has focused on how much to give and which organizations to donate to. In part three, we’re going to explore various ways to give strategically, so you can make more of an impact with your donations while enjoying the associated tax benefits.

In the meantime, please visit our resources page for additional details on this topic, and stay tuned for more.

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Charitable Giving, Part 1: How Much Should You Give to Charity?

How Much to Give to Charity

This article is the first in a four-part blog series focused on charitable giving and will address the question: How much should you give to charity?

There’s a great need for charitable donations from private sources these days, and with those donations, the world can be a better place. If you have a desire to donate money but aren’t sure how much, to whom, when, and how to benefit from applicable tax laws, this blog series is for you.

How Much to Give to Charity Each Year

As a financial planner, clients often ask me for my recommendation on how much they should donate to charities each year. Because I understand my clients’ financial situation thoroughly, this is not an unusual question. I can provide a suggestion based on their cash flow or tax situation.

But with something as personal and individual as charitable giving, I prefer they determine the amount themselves.

What I’ve found helpful in guiding clients is sharing statistics on how much others give to charity. And as it turns out, there’s a psychological explanation as to why this is helpful.

It’s called “informational social influence,” and it occurs when people do not know the correct (or best) action to take. Instead, they look to the behavior of others as an important source of information and act accordingly.

How Much Do Others Give to Charity?

Americans are charitable, donating hundreds of billions of dollars annually to needy organizations. Although there are significant differences in how much Americans give, higher-income households tend to give a higher proportion of their income to charity than lower-income households (unsurprisingly). However, demographic factors, such as age, education, race, and geography, also come into play.

According to data from Giving USA Foundation, the average individual donation among all income levels in 2020 was 2.5% of income. But individual households earning over $200,000 per year gave a more significant percentage—on average, 4.5%.

According to the same report, households in the Northeast and Upper Midwest gave, on average, 3% to 4% of their income to charity. Meanwhile, households on the West Coast gave approximately 1% to 2% of their income to charity.

Of course, these are averages, and the actual percentages of income people in these regions donate depend upon many factors.

How Tax Deductions Impact Charitable Giving

Once I become familiar with my clients’ charitable giving goals, I include the discussion of “how much” in my annual tax planning meetings.

Why? Because the tax code provides incentives for individuals to make charitable donations by allowing them to deduct these gifts from their taxable income. Indeed, if you’re charitably inclined, you may be able to meaningfully reduce your tax burden each year.

Of course, there are rules and guidelines as to who can deduct such donations and to what extent. I will expand on these nuances later in this blog series.

In the meantime, I hope you find this information useful in determining how much you’d like to give to charity each year. Please check out our other resources for additional details on this topic and stay tuned for more.

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SECURE 2.0 Act Cliff Notes (So You Don’t Have to Read the Whole Thing)

SECURE 2.0 Act Cliff Notes

On December 29, 2022, President Biden signed into law a $1.7 trillion spending package, which includes the SECURE 2.0 Act, legislation that changes the rules on saving for retirement and emergencies and withdrawals from retirement plans. The good news is that it opens up opportunities to save more and expands on tax benefits for Roth IRAs and 401(k) plans.

Many of the SECURE 2.0 Act’s provisions take effect on January 1, 2023, while others may take years to implement. Here’s a summary of key provisions in the SECURE 2.0 Act and how they may affect your retirement savings goals.

If you are a client of Curtis Financial Planning, we will discuss these changes as they pertain to your situation, ensuring that you maximize every opportunity.

Changes to Required Minimum Distributions (RMDs)

For those who need to be made aware, this is when you must take withdrawals from your retirement accounts, even if you don’t need the extra income. The IRS wants to collect the deferred tax on these funds. (Remember that Roth IRAs don’t have RMDs, but all other IRAs and retirement accounts do).

The changes:

  • Raises the RMD age to 73 for those who turn 73 between 2023 and 2032. In 2033 and beyond, the RMD age will increase to 75. (Unfortunately, if you turned 72 in 2022 or earlier, you must keep taking RMDs).
  • Reduces the IRS’s 50% penalty for failing to satisfy your RMD before the year-end deadline to 25% of the RMD amount. The liability falls to 10% if an individual corrects the discrepancy promptly.
  • Roth accounts in employer retirement plans (such as Roth 401k’s) will be exempt from RMDs beginning in 2024. Nothing changes for individual Roth IRAs that have no RMD requirement.

Increases to Catch-Up Contributions per the SECURE 2.0 Act

Catch-up contributions aim to help older people make up for not saving enough earlier in their lives in their IRAs or company retirement plans.

  • Currently, if you’re 50 or older and are allowed to contribute to a 401(k) plan at work, in 2022, you can put in up to $6,500 more than younger people. Starting in 2025, individuals between the ages of 60 and 63 can make annual catch-up contributions of up to $10,000 to a workplace plan. This amount will be indexed to inflation.
  • Beginning in 2024, the IRA catch-up contribution amount for those 50 and older will be indexed to inflation. Currently, the maximum catch-up is $1000.00 and has been stagnant.
  • If your wage income exceeds $145,000 in the previous calendar year, you’ll need to make catch-up contributions to a Roth account in after-tax dollars. Those earning less than $145,000 are exempt from this requirement. The impact of this change is that you will not get a tax deduction for the catch-up contribution as you did with an traditional IRA, but the Roth contribution will grow tax-free.

Employer Matching for Roth Retirement Accounts

Employers can now offer employees the option of receiving matching and non-elective contributions to their Roth retirement accounts. Note that profit-sharing contributions do not qualify. The employer will get a tax deduction, but the employee must pay taxes on these employer contributions.

Changes to Qualified Charitable Distributions (QCDs)

  • Currently, IRA owners can transfer up to $100,000 each year to a charity as a QCD. This $100,000 will now be indexed for inflation.
  • There is now a one-time maximum $50,000 QCD distribution to a charitable remainder trust (CRUT), charitable annuity trust (CRAT) or charitable gift annuity (CGA). However, with the $50,000 limit the administrative costs to set this up may be prohibitive.

Self-Employed Plan Changes

Sole proprietors can now open up new 401(k) plans for the prior year up until the filing deadline (NOT including extensions) instead of year-end. But as before, self-employed can make contributions up to the extended filing date.

More Flexibility for 529 Plan Balances

The IRS will allow direct transfers from 529 plans (open for at least 15 years) to Roth IRAs starting in 2024. The Roth IRA must be in the name of the beneficiary of the 529 plan. The maximum lifetime transfer is $35,000 and is subject to annual IRA contribution limits. The IRS is working out the details on how to interpret this law.

Key Provisions for Younger Retirement Savers

  • Beginning in 2025, employers offering new 401(k) and 403(b) plans must automatically enroll eligible employees at an initial contribution rate of 3%. In addition, employees with low-balance retirement accounts may also have the option to automatically transfer their balance to a new plan when they change jobs.
  • Starting in 2024, employers can add a Roth emergency savings account option to employer plans such as 401(k)s. Non-highly compensated employees can contribute up to $2,500 annually, and their first four withdrawals per calendar year will be tax-free and penalty-free.
  • Beginning in 2024, employers can “match” an employee’s student loan payments by contributing an equal amount to a retirement account on their behalf.

Help for Part-Time Workers per the SECURE 2.0 Act

Currently, if you are a part-time worker at an employer with a 401(k) plan you can only contribute once you work there for at least 500 hours a year for three years or if you work for over 1000 hours for one year. The new rules will reduce the threshold to 500 hours a year for two years starting in 2025.

Changes for S Corp Owners

Owners of S Corporation stock may take advantage of like-kind exchange non-recognition treatment for their sales to an ESOP, beginning in 2028.

The SECURE 2.0 Act: Bottom Line

This is not an exhaustive list of the provisions, but I chose to write about those that pertain to most people. Also, now that Congress has passed the act, the IRS will provide details on how they will interpret some of the provisions, as clarifications are almost always necessary with a bill as far-reaching as this one.

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Clean Energy Tax Credits: What to Know Before You Buy

Inflation Reduction Act & Clean Energy Tax Credits

The Inflation Reduction Act introduces several clean energy tax credits and rebates that may benefit environmentally conscious taxpayers.

As a California-based financial advisor who works primarily with women, I frequently have conversations with clients about socially and environmentally responsible investment strategies. But with the recent passage of the Inflation Reduction Act, many environmentally conscious investors are seeking new ways to put their values into action while potentially benefiting financially in the process.

If you’re considering making climate friendly upgrades to your home or vehicles, you may be eligible to claim thousands of dollars in potential tax credits and rebates. However, before purchasing a rooftop solar panel or electric vehicle, it’s important to understand the various clean energy incentives available—and how to use them to your advantage.

Clean Vehicle Credits

The Inflation Reduction Act extends the Clean Vehicle Credit through 2032. It also introduces new credits for purchasing used electric vehicles.

Specifically, if you buy a new electric vehicle (EV), you may be eligible for a tax credit worth up to $7,500. For a used EV, your tax credit may be worth 30% of the purchase price or $4,000, whichever is less. You may also qualify for additional incentives from state and local governments, depending on where you live.  The caveat is that the new credits don’t go into effect until 2023. So, if you’re planning to purchase a used electric vehicle, you’ll likely want to wait until after the new year to maximize your potential tax benefit. 

For new EV purchases, it’s a little more complicated. If you purchase a new EV in 2022, the Inflation Reduction Act stipulates that the final assembly of the vehicle must take place in North America. However, purchases of General Motors and Tesla car models aren’t eligible for a tax credit until 2023.

Car manufacturers must also meet two battery-related requirements for consumers to receive the full credit in 2023 and beyond. That means some EVs won’t immediately qualify for a tax break as manufacturers work to meet these rules.

Lastly, beginning in 2024, car buyers can transfer their tax credit to dealers at the point of sale. That way it directly reduces the purchase price. This can be particularly valuable for two reasons:

  • First, you won’t have to wait until you file your tax return to benefit financially.
  • In addition, transferring the credit to the dealer at the point of sale ensures you’ll receive the full benefit since the credit amount can’t exceed your tax liability. Meaning, if you owe $6,000 in taxes for the 2023 tax year and take the Clean Vehicle Credit worth $7,500, you lose the remaining $1,500.

Keep in mind there are new adjusted gross income (AGI) thresholds to be eligible for a new EV tax credit. In 2023, the AGI limit is $150,000 for single taxpayers and $300,000 for married couples filing jointly.  

Residential Clean Energy Credit

The Residential Energy Efficient Property Credit was previously set to expire at the end of 2023. Now the Residential Clean Energy Credit, the Inflation Reduction Act extends it through 2034 and increases the credit amount, with a percentage phaseout in the final two years.

The Residential Clean Energy Credit is a 30% tax credit that applies to installation of solar panels and other equipment that makes use of renewable energy through 2032. The percentage falls to 26% in 2033 and 22% in 2034.

In addition, the credit is retroactive to the beginning of 2022. That means if you install a solar panel or similar equipment this year, you can qualify for the 30% tax credit on your 2022 tax return.

Energy Efficient Home Improvement Credit

The Inflation Reduction Act also extends the Nonbusiness Energy Property Credit and renames it the Energy Efficient Home Improvement Credit.

This is a 30% tax credit on the cost of eligible home improvements, worth up to $1,200 per year (as opposed to the previous $500 lifetime limit). The annual cap jumps to $2,000 for heat pumps, heat pump water heaters, and biomass stoves and boilers. In addition, roofing will no longer qualify for a tax credit.

Specifically, the annual tax credit limits for qualifying improvements are as follows:

  • $150 for home energy audits
  • $250 for any exterior door (up to $500 total) that meet applicable Energy Star requirements
  • $600 for exterior windows and skylights that meet applicable Energy Star requirements
  • $600 for other energy property, including electric panels and certain related equipment

The enhanced credit is available for projects you complete between January 1, 2023 and December 31, 2033, with some exceptions. Any projects you finish in 2022 aren’t eligible for new incentives. However, if you incur costs in 2022 for a project that you complete in 2023, these costs can count towards your tax break.

Additional Financial Incentives for Investing in Clean Energy  

Finally, the Inflation Reduction Act creates two rebate programs to incentivize clean energy and efficiency projects. Unlike many clean energy tax credits, these rebates are offered at the point of sale. Thus, consumers can reap the financial benefit immediately.

The HOMES rebate is worth up to $8,000 for consumers who make energy efficient upgrades to their homes—for example, HVAC installations. Ultimately, the rebate amount depends on the amount of energy you save and household income.

Meanwhile, the High-Efficiency Electric Home Rebate Program offers taxpayers up to $14,000 for buying energy efficient electrical appliances. This rebate is only available to lower income households, and the rebate amount varies by appliance.

The timeline for these rebates to go into effect is less clear than the three tax credits mentioned above. Many experts believe they won’t be broadly available to taxpayers until the second half of 2023 as the Energy Department issues rules governing the programs.

How to Invest in Clean Energy Strategically

The Inflation Reduction Act creates a variety of financial incentives for taxpayers to invest in clean energy and energy-efficient projects. Those who take advantage of these clean energy tax credits and rebates can potentially save thousands on their taxes while doing their part to fight climate change.

However, to maximize these incentives, it’s important to time them correctly and use their constraints to your advantage. A trusted financial advisor like Curtis Financial Planning can help you incorporate these purchases and investments into your financial plan, so you can reap the greatest benefit. We invite you to connect with us to find out more.

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7 End-of-Year Tax Planning Tips for 2022

End of Year Tax Planning Tips for 2022

With the end of the year fast approaching, Tax Season may be the last thing on your mind. Yet in many ways, the final months of 2022 may be your last chance to reduce this year’s tax liability. To avoid overpaying Uncle Sam and preserve more of your hard-earned income, consider the following end-of-year tax planning tips for 2022.

To minimize your tax liability, consider these end-of-year tax planning tips for 2022:

Tip #1: Identify Changes to Your Tax Situation

In 2022, the standard deduction is $12,950 for single filers and $25,900 for married taxpayers filing jointly. The standard rule of thumb is if you can deduct more than the standard deduction amount in eligible expenses from your taxable income, you should itemize. Otherwise, it’s generally easier and more valuable to take the standard deduction. 

If your income and circumstances have been relatively stable since last year, you likely know already if you plan to itemize or take the standard deduction this year. However, if you’re on the fence, there are end-of-year tax planning strategies you can utilize to reduce your taxable burden.

For instance, consider pre-paying certain deductible expenses—for example, charitable donations or out-of-pocket medical expenses—this year so that itemizing makes more sense.

Let’s say you plan to donate $5,000 to charity each year for the next several years. If you have extra cash on hand this year, you may want to consider donating $10,000 or more to your charity of choice so you can itemize your deductible expenses. Then, next year, you can skip your regular donation and take the standard deduction.

The same is true for out-of-pocket medical expenses. If you know you have certain expenses looming for 2023, you can pay them this year to make the most of the associated tax benefit.

Tip #2: Harvest Capital Losses

Capital gains taxes can eat away at your investment returns over time—specifically in non-qualified investment accounts. Fortunately, the IRS allows investors to offset realized capital gains with realized losses from other investments.

That means you can realize profits on your top-performing investments while selling poor performers to reduce this year’s tax bill. If you have substantial losses, you may be able to completely offset your gains and potentially reduce your taxable income. And in years like 2022 when markets have struggled, you may have more losses than you think.

Keep in mind if you work with a financial advisor, you may not need to initiate this strategy on your own. Most fiduciary financial planners proactively take advantage of tax-loss harvesting to help clients with end-of-year tax planning.

Tip #3: Review Your Charitable Giving Plan

Currently, taxpayers who itemize deductions can give up to 60% of their Adjusted Gross Income (AGI) to public charities, including donor-advised funds, and deduct the amount donated on this year’s tax return.

You can also deduct up to 30% of your AGI for donations of non-cash assets. In addition, you can carry over charitable contributions that exceed these limits in up to five subsequent tax years.

When it comes to end-of-year tax planning, donor-advised funds (DAFs) can provide opportunities to meaningfully reduce your tax liability relative to other giving strategies. For example, if you plan to donate $10,000 each year to your favorite charitable organization, it may be more beneficial to take the standard deduction when you file your taxes.

On the other hand, you can front-load a donation of $50,000 to a donor-advised fund and request that the DAF distribute funds to your chosen charity each year for five years. In year one, you can receive a more favorable tax break by itemizing on your tax return. Meanwhile, you’ll still be meeting your charitable goals each year via the DAF. This strategy can be particularly beneficial in above-average income years.

And better yet, you can donate non-cash assets like highly appreciated stock to a DAF and avoid paying the capital gains tax. This strategy can also help you diversify your investment portfolio without triggering an unpleasant tax bill. Plus, you can take an immediate deduction for the full value of the donation (subject to IRS limits).

Tip #4: Look for Opportunities to Reduce Income

Maxing out your qualified investment account contributions is indeed important for meeting your future financial goals like retirement. However, this can also be a valuable end-of-year tax planning strategy.  

First, be sure to check the contribution limits on your employer-sponsored or self-employed retirement plans for 2022. You can also contribute up to $6,000 to an individual retirement account in 2022 (or $7,000 if you’re age 50 or over).  

In addition, individuals with qualifying high deductible health plans are eligible to contribute to a health savings account (HSA). An HSA can be a great way to save and grow your money on a tax-advantaged basis.

In fact, these accounts offer triple tax savings. Contributions, capital gains, and withdrawals are all tax-free if you use your funds for eligible healthcare expenses. And like qualified retirement accounts, you can deduct your contributions from your taxable income in most cases to reduce your overall tax liability.

Meanwhile, depending on your compensation plan, you may want to consider deferring part of your income to reduce your taxable income in 2022.

Employees with deferred compensation agreements typically pay taxes on the money when they receive it—not as they earn it. That means if your employer pays you a lump sum per your distribution agreement, you could potentially get hit with a hefty tax bill.

There are different ways to structure income from a deferred compensation plan. Your options typically depend on your agreement with your employer. The distribution schedule can usually be found in your plan documents. So, if you haven’t reviewed your plan details recently, you may want to revisit them during end-of-year tax planning to avoid any surprises.

Tip #5: Take Advantage of Lower Income Years and/or Down Markets with a Roth Conversion

The IRS allows individuals to convert a traditional IRA to a Roth IRA via a Roth conversion. A Roth IRA conversion shifts your tax liability to the present. As a result, you avoid paying taxes on withdrawals in the future. In addition, Roth IRAs don’t require minimum distributions.

With a Roth conversion, you pay taxes on the amount you convert at your current ordinary income tax rate. That’s why it can be a particularly powerful end-of-year tax planning strategy in tax years when your income is below average.

At the same time, a down market can be an opportune time to take advantage of a Roth conversion. Since account values typically decline in a negative market environment, so does the amount on which you pay taxes when converting to a Roth. Meanwhile, there’s greater potential for future appreciation and withdrawals that tax-free.

After you convert your traditional IRA to a Roth, any withdrawals you make in retirement will be tax-free. However, you must be over age 59 ½ and satisfy the five-year rule. And since Roth IRAs don’t have RMDs, you can leave your funds to grow tax-free until you need them.

While Roth conversions can be beneficial for many, they don’t make sense for everyone. Be sure to consult with a trusted financial advisor or tax expert before leveraging this strategy.

Tip #6: Strategically Transfer Wealth

If you expect to leave significant wealth to your heirs, proper estate planning is key. Fortunately, there are end-of-year tax planning strategies you can leverage to help minimize your estate’s potential tax burden.  

In many cases, gifting is one of the simplest ways to efficiently transfer wealth while reducing your estate. Each year, the annual gift-tax exclusion allows you to gift a certain amount (up to $16,000 in 2022) to as many people as you like without incurring the federal gift tax. Moreover, spouses can combine the annual exclusion to double the amount they can gift tax-free.  

Indeed, cash gifts are most common. However, you can also use the annual exclusion to transfer personal property or contribute to a 529 college savings plan. Alternatively, the IRS allows you to pay educational and medical expenses on behalf of someone else without incurring federal taxes. However, you must pay the institution directly.   

Trusts can also help you transfer wealth strategically while reducing your family’s taxable burden. However, trusts are varied and complex. It’s important to consult your financial planner or estate planning attorney to determine if a trust may be an appropriate end-of-year tax planning strategy.

Tip #7: Donate Your Required Minimum Distribution (RMD)

To keep people from using retirement accounts to avoid paying taxes, the IRS requires individuals to begin taking minimum distributions from certain qualified accounts once they reach a certain age. As of 2020, required minimum distributions (RMDs) kick in at age 72.

You can withdraw more than your RMD amount in any given year—but be prepared for the potential tax consequences. On the other hand, the IRS imposes a penalty of up to 50% if you fail to take your full RMD before the deadline.

Both scenarios can be costly. Fortunately, careful end-of-year tax planning can help you manage your RMDs to avoid high taxes and other penalties.

For example, if you don’t need the extra income, you can donate your RMD to charity. This is a tax planning strategy called a qualified charitable distribution (QCD). A QCD allows IRA owners to transfer up to $100,000 directly to charity each year.

QCDs can satisfy all or part of your RMD each year, depending on your income needs. You can also donate more than your RMD amount up to the $100,000 limit. And since QCDs are non-taxable, they don’t increase your taxable income like RMDs do.

It’s important to note that the IRS considers the first dollars out of an IRA to be your RMD until you meet your requirement. If you take advantage of this tax planning strategy, be sure to make the QCD before making any other withdrawals from your account.

For More End-of-Year Tax Planning Tips, Consult a Trusted Financial Advisor

This isn’t an exhaustive list of end-of-year tax planning strategies. However, these tips can help you determine if there are opportunities to reduce your taxable burden in 2022.  At the same time, a trusted financial advisor or tax expert can help you identify which strategies are right for you within the context of your overall financial plan.

To learn more about how Curtis Financial Planning helps our clients take control of their finances, please explore our services and client onboarding process.

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How Will Student Loan Forgiveness Affect You?

Student Loan Forgiveness

After months of discussion and debate, President Biden announced on August 24, 2022 that many federal student loan borrowers will be eligible for some type of debt forgiveness. Those who didn’t receive a Pell Grant may be eligible for up to $10,000 in forgiveness. Meanwhile, Pell Grant recipients may see as much as $20,000 of debt forgiven.

President Biden’s student loan forgiveness plan comes as welcome news to many Americans drowning in debt. Yet many—voters and politicians alike—oppose the program.

In fact, many Republican leaders are threatening legal challenges in an effort to block the bill. If this happens, the plan’s future may be in jeopardy.

Nevertheless, borrowers who are eligible for student loan forgiveness should be prepared to take advantage of the program if and when it begins. Here’s what you need to know about Biden’s student loan forgiveness program, including how it works and how it may benefit you.

What’s Included in Biden’s Student Loan Debt Relief Plan?

The Student Loan Debt Relieve plan forgives $10,000 of student loan debt for federal student loan borrowers. In addition, borrows who received a Pell Grant may be eligible for up to $20,000 in student loan forgiveness.

The plan also includes:

  • An additional (and possibly final) extension on federal student loan payments until December 31, 2022
  • A push for borrowers who may be eligible for the Public Service Loan Forgiveness Waiver (PSLF) to apply for the waiver before it expires on October 31, 2022
  • The creation of a new income-driven repayment plan (IDR) that would lower monthly payments and potentially reduce the time period required for loan forgiveness for eligible borrowers.

Who’s Eligible for Student Loan Forgiveness?

To be eligible for forgiveness, borrowers’ income levels must be under $125,000 for single borrowers and $250,000 for married couples and head of household filers. Borrowers may use their 2020 and 2021 tax returns to determine their income. They only need to meet the income requirements in one of these tax years.

In addition, only Federal loans funded by June 30, 2002 are eligible for forgiveness. This includes consolidated debt.

Federal loans for graduate school are also eligible for forgiveness, as are Parent Plus Loans. However, if a parent has more than one Parent Plus Loan for multiple children, they’re only eligible for total forgiveness up to $10,000.

Current students are also eligible for student loan forgiveness if they have debt. But if the student is a dependent of their parents, the parents’ income will determine eligibility for forgiveness.

Lastly, it’s important to emphasize that student loan forgiveness only applies to federal loans. Borrowers who refinanced their student loans with a private lender cannot take advantage of the program.

What Do Borrowers Need to Do?

Some parts of the student loan forgiveness plan will go into effect automatically. For example, many borrowers with IDR plans who have already recertified their income with the US Education Department will be eligible for loan forgiveness automatically.

Meanwhile, other aspects of the plan may require borrowers to take more action. One example applies to borrowers who made payments on their student loans since the start of the Covid-19 pandemic.

Since the government paused federal student loan payments in March 2020, borrowers can request a refund of any payments they made after that date. This makes most sense if a borrower’s loan balance is less than $10,000, and a refund would allow those payments to be forgiven instead.

Is Student Loan Forgiveness Taxable?

Thanks to the American Rescue Plan Act of 2021, most student debt discharged through 2025 will be tax-free—at least at the federal level. At the state level, income tax consequences will vary by state.

Currently, 13 states may treat forgiven student loan debt as taxable income. These states include Arkansas, Hawaii, Idaho, Kentucky, Massachusetts, Minnesota, Mississippi, New York, Pennsylvania, South Carolina, Virginia, West Virginia, and Wisconsin.

The Tax Foundation estimates that borrowers could incur anywhere from $300 to over $1,000 in state taxes, depending on where they live, if they receive the full $10,000 in student loan forgiveness. These figures could double for Pell Grant recipients, since they’re eligible to receive up to $20,000 in student loan forgiveness.

Planning Considerations for Those Who Haven’t Filed a 2021 Tax Return Yet

Indeed, most taxpayers have already filed their 2020 and 2021 tax returns. However, if you filed an extension for your 2021 return, there are a few strategies you may be able to leverage to help you qualify for student loan forgiveness.

  • First, consider contributing to an eligible retirement plan if you haven’t reached your contribution limit yet. This strategy makes sense is the contribution is enough to reduce your AGI to a level that’s eligible for forgiveness.
  • Income thresholds for married couples filing separately are still unclear. However, if the thresholds for single filers apply to married couples filing separately, you may want to see if changing your filing status will help you qualify for forgiveness.

As you consider these strategies, keep in mind that the extension deadline is October 17, 2022.

Student Loan Forgiveness: Next Steps

The forgiveness process will be relatively easy for most borrowers. For example, federal student loan borrowers already have income information on file with the US Department of Education. Thus, those who are eligible are likely to receive forgiveness automatically.

Of course, there are still many unknowns, including how a potential challenge by Republicans will affect student loan forgiveness. In any event, the official application should be available soon. The U.S. Department of Education sent out a notice recently that it could be available as soon as early October, 2022.  In the meantime, eligible borrowers can receive updates from the Department of Education by signing up here.

Lastly, a trusted financial advisor can help you better understand how student loan forgiveness may impact your financial plan. They can also help you identify other strategies to pay down your debt and reach your financial goals.

To learn more about how Curtis Financial Planning helps our clients take control of their finances, please explore our services and client onboarding process.

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Strategic Charitable Giving: How to Make an Impact with Your Donations While Minimizing Your Tax Bill

Strategic Charitable Giving

Americans are some of the most generous people in the world. In 2021, Americans gave over $484 billion to charity, according to Giving USA’s 2021 Annual Report. More impressive is that individuals represent 67% of total giving, giving nearly $327 billion in 2021.

There are many reasons to give to charity, from feeling good to creating a legacy. Yet charitable giving can also be important from a financial planning perspective.

In this article, I’m sharing three charitable giving strategies to help you minimize your year-end tax bill.

Charitable Giving and Your Taxes

First, let’s review how charitable giving impacts your taxes.

Currently, taxpayers who itemize deductions can give up to 60% of their Adjusted Gross Income (AGI) to public charities, including donor-advised funds, and deduct the amount donated on that year’s tax return.

You can also deduct up to 30% of your AGI for donations of non-cash assets. In addition, you can carry over charitable contributions that exceed these limits in up to five subsequent tax years.

You need to know your marginal tax rate to calculate your potential tax savings. Your marginal tax rate is the amount of additional tax you pay for every additional dollar earned as income. So if your marginal tax rate is 28% and you itemize, you’ll save roughly 28 cents for every dollar you give to charity.

How to Make a Bigger Tax Impact With Your Giving

Yes, you can write checks to your favorite charities throughout the year, and while your donations may be generous, this approach to giving isn’t the most tax-efficient. Here are some ways to give that are:

#1: Donor-Advised Funds

One of the most efficient ways individuals can donate to charity is through a donor-advised fund (DAF). A DAF is a registered 501(c)(3) organization that can accept cash donations, appreciated securities, and other non-cash assets.

One of the advantages of a DAF is that you can take a taxable deduction in the year you contribute to it, even if you haven’t decided which charities to support. You can then invest and grow your funds tax-free within your DAF until you decide how to distribute them.

And, even better than donating cash, you can donate non-cash assets like highly appreciated stock to a DAF and avoid paying the capital gains tax. This strategy can also help you diversify your investment portfolio without triggering an unpleasant tax bill. Plus, you can take an immediate deduction for the full value of the donation (subject to IRS limits).

#2: Bunching Charitable Donations

Bunching your charitable donations can be beneficial if your total allowable itemized deductions are just under the standard deduction. In 2022, the standard deduction for single taxpayers is $12,950 and $25,900 for married couples.

Example:

Let’s say you give $3000 a year to charity, and it doesn’t get you over the standard deduction amount. However, you could go over the standard deduction if you “bunched” your charitable contributions into one year. For example, in 2022, if you gave $9000 instead of $3000 you could itemize deductions and save tax dollars. Then, you would skip donating in the next two years and go back to the standard deduction. Then, in the third year, you would donate $9000 again.

The result will be more significant tax savings over multiple-year timeframes.

#3: Qualified Charitable Contributions

If you’re age 72 or older and have a traditional IRA, the IRS requires you to take a minimum distribution (RMD) from your account each year. In most cases, RMDs are taxable at your ordinary income tax rate. There’s also a steep penalty for not taking your RMD before the deadline.

Meanwhile, if you have other sources of income like Social Security benefits and possibly a pension, your RMD can push you into a higher tax bracket. That means you may pay more taxes than you would otherwise, even if you don’t need the extra income.

The good news is you can donate your RMD by making a Qualified Charitable Distribution (QCD). A QCD allows IRA owners to transfer up to $100,000 directly to charity each year and avoid taxation on the amount.

A QCD can satisfy all or part of your RMD, depending on your income needs. You can also donate more than your RMD, so long as you stay below the $100,000 limit. This strategy can be helpful if you want to reduce your IRA balance and RMDs in future years.

It’s important to note that the IRS considers the first dollars from an IRA to be your RMD until you take the total amount. So, make your QCD before you take any other withdrawals from your account if you want to realize the full tax benefit of this charitable giving strategy.

A Trusted Financial Advisor Can Help You Incorporate Charitable Giving Strategies into Your Financial Plan

Of course, this is not a comprehensive list of charitable giving strategies that can help you make a bigger impact with your donations while lowering your tax bill. Other giving and tax planning strategies may be more appropriate depending on your circumstances and goals.

A trusted advisor like Curtis Financial Planning can help you incorporate giving strategies into your financial plan, so you don’t miss out on valuable tax benefits. Please start here to learn more about how we help our clients and the other services we provide.

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Returning 2020 RMD’s To Avoid Taxation – New IRS Notice

One of the March 27, 2020 CARES Act’s key provisions was to waive the requirement to take Required Minimum Distributions (RMD’s) in 2020. This waiver is good news for retirees who don’t need the money but have to withdraw and pay taxes anyway. However, some people take their RMD, part or in whole early in the year, or take it as a monthly distribution starting in January. At first, it appeared that these early-birds did not catch the worm in this case, because they didn’t avoid the tax on this income.

Good News
The IRS must have heard the groans from the early-bird RMD takers (and their financial advisors and accountants) because they have modified the rules several times since the original provision passed into law.

The Fix
On June 25th, the IRS issued a notice that fixes all the confusion for those who took RMDs earlier. The Notice says that all RMDs taken in 2020 can now be rolled back into the IRA. These rollovers need to be completed by the latest, August 31st of 2020 – including RMD’s taken in January, received as monthly distributions that may be more than 60 days old, and any RMDs withdrawn by beneficiaries.

How Do You Return Them?

With most custodians, you can do a rollover electronically. Or call and find out what the correct steps to take. If you have a financial advisor, they can do it for you.

Documentation: Best Practice

To prevent any problems later, be sure to document these transactions. Take notes and put them in your 2020 tax file, save a copy of your statement that reflects the transactions. Lastly, don’t forget to tell your tax accountant about the rollover so you don’t pay unnecessary tax.

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