Cash Flow Planning

CARES Act Review Part II: Retirement Account Provisions

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There are several retirement account provisions in the CARES ACT meant to reduce your tax liability or help with current cash flow or both. Here are the details:

1. RMD-REQUIRED MINIMUM DISTRIBUTIONS

You don’t have to take your RMD (Required Minimum Distribution) for 2020, whether it be from an IRA (regular, Simple, SEP), inherited IRA, 401(k) plans, 403(b) plans or 457(b) plans.

PLANNING TIP: If you already withdrew your RMD for 2020, and the withdrawal has been within 60 days, you can redeposit it to your account and avoid tax. If a distribution was taken more than 60 days ago and you can qualify for the coronavirus-related distribution (described below) you can redeposit it and avoid tax. Note: Non-spouse inherited IRA beneficiaries cannot redeposit the withdrawal. 

2CORONAVIRUS DISTRIBUTIONS FROM RETIREMENT ACCOUNTS  – new more tax-friendly rules 

For 2020, the 10% penalty will be waived for taking an early distribution from your IRA or employer plan. Previously, distributions before the age of 59 1/2 incurred a 10% penalty in addition to tax owed (with a few hardship withdrawal exceptions).

  • The distribution can be up to $100,000
  • It must be taken in 2020
  • The income is spread over 3 years for tax purposes unless you proactively elect to include it all in 2020
  • Beginning on the day after receipt of a Coronavirus-related distribution, an individual has up to three years to repay the amount as qualified rollover distribution (in one or multiple payments). Any distribution going back to January 1, 2020 qualifies

PLANNING TIP:  If you elect to take a distribution, it may be beneficial to include the entire distribution in 2020 if you expect your income to significantly decline in 2020 and be higher in future years).​​​​​​

PLANNING TIP: In a perfect world, withdrawing from retirement accounts early should be a last resort. These accounts get tax-deferral benefits to incentivize us to save for our future non-earning years. The compounding that happens when the money is left to grow tax-deferred is invaluable in building a nest egg. However, keeping that caution in mind, these are challenging times and the loosening up of these rules may be very helpful to many people. The good news is that there is a way to pay it back and avoid tax and penalties.

 Eligibility (very broad):

  •  People diagnosed with COVID-19, or have a spouse or dependents diagnosed with the virus.
  •  People who are experiencing adverse financial consequences as a result of being quarantined, furloughed, laid off, reduced hours, unable to work because of childcare issues, and a handful of other similar reasons.
  •  Business owners that had to close or operate under reduced hours
  •  Meet some other reason that the IRS decides to say is OK

3. ​​​​​​​COMPANY RETIREMENT PLAN LOANS – a provision to further expand company retirement plan loans (like from a 401(k):

  • The maximum amount of an allowable plan loan doubled from $50,000 to $100,000
  • The loan may be for up to the present value of the participant’s account
  • Payment on plan loan otherwise owed may be delayed for one year

In addition, the usual 20% mandatory tax withholding for non-direct rollovers from company plans is waived for 2020.  However, you will still need to pay tax (at tax time) on any amounts that you don’t roll back into a retirement plan within 60 days.

Next up: A review of enhanced Unemployment Benefits in the CARES Act

If you missed Part I: Stimulus Payments go here.

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Budgeting for Happiness with Spreadsheets On Spreadsheet Day

Nowadays, it seems there is a “day” for everything. And, today, October 17, is spreadsheet day. Spreadsheet day commemorates the day the first spreadsheet program, Visicalc, was released way back in 1979. Spreadsheets are a great tool because they help us to organize and categorize data into a logical format. Then, we can use them to analyze or help solve a problem or create a solution. 

Cash Flow Spreadsheets 

As a financial planner, one of the things I help people with is their cash flow – making sure that what comes in and what goes out is sustainable over a lifetime. It starts with a typical spreadsheet – a list of items and what they cost each year and then projected out over several years. The columns and rows add up into numbers that can be analyzed. 

But when it comes to spending, it’s not as easy as it sounds. Since resources are finite for most people, where the money goes has a significant impact on a person’s quality of life. Lots of people lose sight of this in living and spending day-to-day. For example, they may spend money on things or experiences that aren’t that important to them, and not have money left over for the things that are. Or, they may have a long term goal that requires saving up for, yet, they continue to deplete their checking account each month without saving a dime. 

Some of this spending behavior is a function of how our brains work. Immediate gratification is very compelling, and it’s hard to focus on longer-term goals unless we make it a habit. Another brain feature that makes it hard to be a disciplined spender is that our brains like novelty. We prefer new and shiny objects or situations – much more than the same old, same old. These biological brain cravings are hard to overcome unless we do it on purpose. That is where my brain hack for controlling spending comes in, and yes, it’s a spreadsheet: The Happiness Spreadsheet.

The Happiness Spreadsheet- what is it?

Filling out a Happiness Spreadsheet requires you to think hard and identify the things and experiences that are the most satisfying to you.  

It also required you to admit that you may be spending money on things that aren’t important to you at all. For example, you may own an expensive car that costs a lot to maintain and is a hassle to park, when you would rather walk, take public transportation, or rideshare. Or, you love to cook and eat simple healthy meals, but instead, you eat out four times a week. Once you identify your values and desires, you can focus on bringing more of them into your life through your spending habits.

Want to give the Happiness Sheet a try? You can download a free copy here: https://www.curtisfinancialplanning.com.

Happy spreadsheeting!

 

 

 

 

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Being Single, Wanting to Retire Early, and Medical Insurance Options

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Recent surveys have indicated that a big worry for baby boomers is how they are going to handle healthcare costs in retirement. This concern is paramount for those who want to retire early. For singles who want to retire early, there is no spousal insurance fallback. Single people need to get insurance to bridge the gap between retirement and Medicare on their own.

A Brief Summary Of Medicare And Average Costs

For people who retire at age 65, Medicare (Part A, B, and D) will take over as the primary health insurance. Premiums are announced each year by the Federal government Center for Medicare and Medicaid (CMS). Most people will also need a supplemental policy to cover the roughly 20% of health care costs that Medicare does not cover. Alternatively, a person can opt for Medicare Advantage (Medicare Part C), an all-in-one solution that has less flexibility but is usually less expensive. 

Depending on income (MAGI) Medicare Part B premiums range from $1626 to $5,526 per year, Medicare Part D premiums average about $400 per year, and Medicare Supplemental (Medi-Gap) premiums average $1700 per year. Then there are out-of-pocket health care costs such as co-pays. The total average healthcare costs for a 65-year-old woman is $5200/year – this is not a small amount of money, but it is predictable and manageable and easy to plan around. Costs can be substantially higher for someone with chronic illnesses.

Health Insurance Options For An Individual Who Wants to Retire Early 

For a single person who wants to retire before age 65, there are a few options for health insurance overage. One option is COBRA (Consolidated Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act) – a health insurance program that allows an eligible employee to continue their employer health insurance coverage for up to 18 months. Some states (such as California) have COBRA laws that allow up to an additional 18 months, for a total of 36 months. However, the premiums can be quite high. The advantage of choosing COBRA is a seamless continuation of coverage. Another option for some retirees, although not as common and can be expensive,  is to “convert” their group health insurance policy into their own individual health insurance plan. 

Besides the high cost, depending on what age a person retires, COBRA may not bridge the coverage gap completely. For example, a person who retires at age 60 and chooses COBRA, will have coverage for 3 years maximum up to age is 63, but will still have to buy health insurance for the next 2 years. 

A better option may be to purchase a health insurance policy on the health insurance marketplace in your state. These exchanges were instituted with the passage of the Affordable Care Act in 2010. Buying health insurance in this way is especially affordable for people whose income (AGI) qualifies for premium tax credits.  In general, individuals and families may be eligible for the premium tax credit if their household income for the year is at least 100 percent but no more than 400 percent of the federal poverty line for their family size. This amounts to $12,140 to $48,560 for a single individual in the continental U.S. during 2019.

These income levels may seem low, but many individuals income drops dramatically after retiring. Net worth isn’t considered for eligibility for premium tax credits. It’s quite possible for a person with a comfortable net worth to qualify for premium tax credits.

 An example:

Susan is 60 years old, lives in California and wants to retire in the next year. She has $1,000,000 saved in her 401(k) and another $800,000 in taxable savings accounts. Dividends and capital gains generated by her taxable investments average $30,000 per year. She has an inherited IRA and last year had to take a distribution of $5000.00. She earns a small amount of interest on her bank account, so her AGI is about $35,500.00. With this amount of income, she would qualify for premium tax credits.

Entering her details on the California State Health Insurance marketplace – Covered California website, Susan could qualify for a monthly discount of up to $809.00! She could opt for a Silver Plan with premiums ranging from $224 to $413 a month or choose a more expensive plan, for example, Gold plan options range from $264-$587 per month. (These premium levels include the discount).

Bottom Line

The cost of healthcare is a topic that causes a lot of anxiety and many times unnecessarily so. Just with any other financial decision, it pays to know your options and to do a detailed cost/benefit analysis. As you can see, with the above example, Susan’s healthcare costs will be manageable. If you are trying to decide whether to retire early and want to understand your healthcare costs, start by talking to your employer’s human resources department about options for extending your current insurance. At the same time, log into your state’s health insurance marketplace and compare costs. Armed with this information, you can make the right decision for your situation. 

 
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Late-Career Women and Burn-Out or When Can I Retire?

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Does this sound like you?
– 50-60 ish,
– have been working for 30-40 years,
– salaried employee,
– your boss is a pain,
– co-workers are all 20-30 years younger than you,
– some days are better than others,
– someone asks: when do you want to retire? and you say “tomorrow.”

If you answered yes, you aren’t alone. One of the most common reasons mid-life women seek financial help is to figure out if they can quit their jobs.

And, if you don’t have a clue whether this is possible or not, unless you dig in, look at the numbers, and project into the future, you won’t get the clarity you need to make such a big life-changing decision.

So, where do you start?

Things You Need To Know

– How much do you have saved?
– Are you getting the return you need on your investments?
– How much do you spend?
– When you retire and start withdrawing from your savings, what will your withdrawal rate be? Is it sustainable?
– Will your spending habits change once you quit your job?
– If you continue to work, what do you project your income to be?
– What do you want to do differently in this next phase of life? How much will it cost?
– What are your assumptions for inflation rates in the future?
– How much will health insurance cost if you are retiring before reaching Medicare eligibility?
– Will you be able to afford healthcare costs not covered by insurance in your older years (long term care)?

The decision to semi-retire or retire is a big one not to be taken lightly. You can assess the viability of reaching your goal by taking a hard look at the facts and numbers and doing some analysis.

Best, Worst and Most Likely Outcomes

Best case outcome: You find out that you can retire or semi-retire when you want to. Worst case outcome: You have to work until you can’t any longer. Most likely case: You find out that you need to work and save for a few more years before reaching your goal.

And surprisingly, once you have clarity and a solid goal, you might find that work and your boss aren’t so bad after all.

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The Importance of Financial Education

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It’s a well-known fact that America has a huge financial literacy problem. The causes of this lack of financial knowledge are often cited as a deficiency of personal finance education in schools or at home. Personally, I would love to see personal finance as a mandatory senior year high school course. I think it would reduce the rate of debt mismanagement in college – both credit card and student loan debt; start young adults on a path to good credit early; and decrease the anxiety of knowing how to handle money as young adults.

A Course in Personal Finance
Recently, I was asked to teach a personal finance class at a local college. I was thrilled for the opportunity and worked diligently on the syllabus, the curriculum, and the slides for the four summer classes. 16 students signed up for the course, 6 of whom need the credit for their MBA degree. The average age of the students is 28, and mostly women.

The most surprising aspect of my experience is the enthusiastic response from the students to the subject matter. The first class focused on personal budgeting and retirement plans. To get these young people thinking critically about their spending, I had them read an ebook I wrote called the Happiness Spreadsheet (a free copy can be downloaded from my website). The book espouses the idea that if you think consciously about the relationship between your spending, what you value, and your happiness, it is easier to create a budget that will stick. Many students had never looked at their spending habits in this way, and it inspired them to do the work.

Learning About Retirement Plans
When it came to retirement savings plans, I was less surprised by the elementary knowledge of the majority of the students. Earlier in the class, I asked them to rank their financial literacy from 1- 10. The average response was 5. I was encouraged when two of the students immediately acted and opened up Roth IRA’s the following week, and others expressed greater interest in how their 401(k) was invested.

In the second class, I focused on credit and debt.

Some of the students had already experienced credit woes. One woman misused credit cards in college but was able to dig herself out and rebuild her credit. She has a credit score over 700 now. Another got into credit trouble after a divorce. She managed to bring her score up from the low 600’s to 700 by diligently going through her credit report to get joint accounts paid off and closed. Another student has stellar credit with an over 800 score. Her goal is to buy a house and has asked for help in reaching this goal.

Future classes will focus on investments and retirement planning. In the end, I will be happy if the students learn 3 concepts from the course:

1. The tax benefits and flexibility of the Roth IRA.
2. The benefits of saving early and the power of compounding.
3. How important it is to build good credit.

Of course, there is so much more to having a successful financial life, but if acted upon, these three concepts will lay a great foundation.

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How To Make Sure You See All the Places On Your Bucket List

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Americans love to travel. When I ask my clients what they want more of in their life now and later, the most common answer includes “I want to travel more.” And, many tell me that their travel spending is a non-negotiable expense. This wanderlust grows after retirement as the time constraint that existed while working is gone.

Travel Isn’t Cheap and Priorities Change
But travel isn’t cheap and is something that needs to be planned for especially when the paychecks stop. It doesn’t help that after a certain age, traveling on a budget is not as appealing. We want to enjoy some luxury while on the road, or at the minimum a home-like experience. This means that besides the basics: a clean room, good lighting, and reliable hot running water, we want crisp white sheets, a firm mattress, a fluffy bathrobe, and high-quality toiletries.

Another shift happens as one gets older, the job of planning every detail of a trip – from hotels to meals to excursions gets less appealing, and opting for a group tour (even with the risk of traveling with strangers) becomes more attractive. This type of travel can come at an extra cost.

How sad it would be if a person who loves to travel reaches retirement and realizes that they can’t afford to go to all the places on their bucket list!

So, if you are a person that is continuously daydreaming about where you want to go next, and your bucket list never gets shorter, there is only one answer: make saving for travel a priority.

If you need some help in creating a budget that aligns with the things you most value (like travel), please download a free copy of The Happiness Spreadsheet: How To Create A Life Aligned With Your Values, Beliefs, and Ideals. I think you will find it helpful. Happy traveling!

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Cultivating a Healthy Relationship with Money

Cultivating a healthy relationship with money is the foundation of a rich and happy life. Just like any other relationship, for your money to prosper and grow, it needs attention and care.

You don’t want to smother it with worry and fear, but you also don’t want to be neglectful. You need to get to know it, love it, and not be afraid to let it go, if you strike the right balance, it will always be there for you.

A little understanding goes a long way in our relationships, and it’s the same for money.The first step to understanding money is to figure out how much you need to live your life the way you want.

You can spend your whole life pursuing more money, or you can figure out what it takes to live and be happy. Money is a tool to fund your life – when you think about money as a tool, it’s easier to plan.

How much do you need?

How much money do you need to meet your financial obligations and commitments: the mortgage, the rent, your other fixed bills, your medical insurance, your kid’s education? How much is an important number because you if you can’t afford your basic lifestyle, life becomes one big worry about money.

Next comes regular saving. This step is hard. It trips many people up. It usually involves delayed gratification, and we don’t like that. It also involves investing. Investing can seem scary and complicated. But we must save for the things or experiences we want soon and in the future, and we must invest or our money will lose value due to inflation.

Retirement is the most daunting savings need of all because it involves large numbers and lots of assumptions – assumptions regarding our longevity, health, returns on investment, interest rates, to name a few. For most of us, social security is the only source of income we will have in retirement besides our savings. For this reason, saving at least 10% of income each year and more if behind is critical.

After you understand how much money you need to cover your emergency fund, your necessary expenses and your retirement savings, then you can focus on what else you want to create a rich and happy life. A healthy relationship with money means knowing that you can’t have everything. Instead, you figure out what in life brings you the most joy and satisfaction, and you prioritize those things.

You will know you have achieved a healthy relationship with money when you worry less about it and start feeling good about how you are spending and saving it. Get started working on this most important relationship now for a happier future.

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Mothers, Daughters and Money

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parents financial habits

My mom quit her blossoming career as a buyer at the Emporium in San Francisco to become a 1950’s-style housewife. As a dutiful Catholic wife, she gave birth to 6 healthy children and spent the next 16 years or so cooking, cleaning, and loving us all as only a mother can.

My dad gave her an allowance which I’m sure was modest. She rarely bought herself anything new and for years she made all her own clothes and some of ours too.

She spent money on food and other necessities. She kept within budget by watching the pennies. For example, she didn’t buy T.V. dinners or other packaged foods that were convenient, but cost more per serving. Rather, she cooked from scratch, with the help of a few canned and frozen items.

We ate simple meals which rotated weekly: Monday-chicken, Tuesday-spaghetti and meatballs, Wednesday-enchiladas, Thursday-pork chops and Friday-always fish and usually breaded-and-fried fillet of sole.

She and my dad rarely went out to dinner and even many years later, she couldn’t accept restaurant prices. She would always go for the cheapest thing on the menu. It got so that when my siblings and I would take her out to eat, we wouldn’t let her see the menu but rather ask her what she felt like eating so she wouldn’t order the house salad!

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We all learn about money in various ways. Our parents behaviors around money can trigger different reactions.

I am nothing like my mother was with money. As soon as I started to have discretionary income, I would treat myself to what I wanted. I believe in living within your means, having an emergency fund, and saving for financial goals and retirement, but I also believe that money is a tool to create a life filled with experiences and things you love and enjoy.

I think my mom was content. But I also know that she would have liked to go out more, get dressed up, maybe go dancing now and then. She would have liked to travel more and she would have liked a new piano. She could have had all those things, and I wish that she had.

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Buying Your Own Home? Read This First

It seems nothing can stop Americans from wanting to buy their own homes. It’s almost as if the credit crisis didn’t happen, even though not too long ago we were bombarded daily with stories about crashing prices, underwater mortgages and home foreclosures. It was an American nightmare, not the American Dream.

xbuying_women.jpg.pagespeed.ic.L1kypEE21GBut if you think about the emotional and economic reasons people want to buy instead of rent, it’s not so hard to understand. As a financial advisor, I meet many potential first-time homebuyers who cite these reasons for wanting to buy:

  • “Why should I pay a landlord when I can put the money toward building equity in something myself?”
  • “Paying rent is like throwing money away.”
  • “I don’t trust the stock market. I’d rather put money in real estate.”
  • “Renting feels like a temporary situation. I want to put down roots and nest.”
  • “I want to be able to remodel my home in any way I want, with no restrictions from landlords.”

What I usually do at this point in the conversation is a back-of-the-envelope analysis of what it would look like for my client to buy a home. The key components of the analysis involve money saved and money earned. Continue Reading…

 

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Real-life Financial Stories: Student Loan Debt

Student Loans by Age graph

Student-loans-by-ageI’d like to introduce Erin Fleming McCloskey. Erin is just starting her career as a financial planner. She passed the CFP examination on the first try which is something to be proud of as the pass rate is about 63.5%.  Lucky for me, Erin is a paraplanner with my firm, Curtis Financial Planning, LLC.

Erin was born at the tail end of Generation X/beginning of the Millenials, a generation generally attributed with the following traits: highly-educated, tech-savvy, self-confident and ambitious. Unfortunately, this generation was also born at a time when costs of higher-education reached new heights. Just last week, the  Federal Reserve Bank of New York announced that outstanding student debt again topped $1 trillion in the fourth quarter of 2013, second only to the pool of debt behind mortgages.

Student loan debt has tripled in a decade, actually faster than medical costs or 500% since 1985.  Seven in 10 college seniors who graduated in 2012 had student loan debt, with an average of $29,400 for those with loans. The national share of seniors graduating with loans rose from 68 percent in 2008 to 71 percent in 2012, while their debt at graduation increased by an average of six percent per year.

This debt crisis not only greatly affects the quality of life of an entire generation, it has a huge impact on the economy as Millennials delay living on their own, buying cars and homes and starting families.

Erin has many of the traits that are attributed to her generation, and yes, she is paying off her student loan debt. Here is her story:

Q & A With Erin

Q: Where are you in the process of paying down your student loan debt?

A I graduated “undergrad” in 2002 and then “grad” school in 2007 and have only been paying my loans for the past 4 years due to deferring in those years of grad school or gap years of financial hardship.  

I went to a private university for undergrad and had financial aid (no scholarships for merit because everyone would have deserved them) and my parents did PLUS loans as well. I had no money from savings/529 plans/grandparents for college. I took loans for whatever I couldn’t cover from the maximum  financial aid package I had.

I owe $32,000 now on those loans (they grew for several years while I deferred payments and now I’m paying on them). For grad school, I went to a state school and only racked up $5000 in debt.

Q: Are you also contributing to a retirement plan (401(k), IRA)?

AI am married (file jointly) and we contribute to an IRA –> Roth rollover for me each year. (Income is too high to directly do a Roth contribution for me).

Q: How do you prioritize your long term savings and paying down student loans?

A: Fortunately I have money saved to pay my loans currently, and out of my husband’s salary, we save for retirement.  My goal is that by the time my saved money from my last job runs out, I will be earning enough to keep paying my loans down myself.

Q: Do you have private loans or government loans?

A: I have government loans and private loans.

Q: Did you consolidate your loans?

A: My loans are consolidated, and the interest is around 2.5%, so I am in no hurry to pay the balance ahead of schedule.

Q: Have your found a way to improve your student loan situation?

A: I did consolidate and I believe my current rate is the best I can get. I’ve had this rate for 5-6 years.

Q: Can you recommend any resources, apps, tools that have helped pay down loans?

A: Yes, https://studentaid.gov/ for advice and consolidating

Q:  To what extent are your student loans affecting your life and the decisions you’re making?

A: The first time I realized that the loans were real and I owed money was when I came back from my first year after college that I’d spent in service abroad. I didn’t realize I needed to start paying on the loans after the grace period and since I wasn’t having my mail forwarded across the globe, I missed out on the reminders. So, I came back with my credit score ruined for the next seven years. 

Fortunately, by the time I was married and trying to buy a home my record was clean again. Having loans to pay did also stop me from leaving the country to be a backpacker for TOO long at a time; always had to come back and pay my minimums.

I am fortunate that I don’t have to worry about paying them, since now I am married and can take advantage of the second income.  I think the real difference to me now is that we have a 2 year old and we’ve already started saving for her college because I don’t want her to be in the same boat as I am with owing so much.

I’m also going to take advantage of technological/educational advances by the time she is out of high school and do a real cost/benefit analysis and see what education she can do virtually and for free.

I am sure that my education and life experience were worth the cost, but I do want to do my best to assure the investment will be worth it for my daughter and make sure she has good advice and career counseling when the time comes.

Q: When you are done paying off your student loans, what will you do with that freed up cash?

A: Probably give some to my daughter during her starting-out years, and otherwise use it to max-out retirement savings if needed and after that, PLANE TICKETS!

Q: If you could start over, would you choose the same education and loans?
A: Absolutely! My college experience was totally worth what I’m paying for now. I just wish I’d not made the mistake with missing out on my first 8 payments or so.

If you are interested in learning more about how you can tackle your student loan debt, join GoGirl Finance, Bicycle Financial and me for a twitter chat on February 26 at 5:30 PST, 8:30 EST. Use the hashtag #SavingsChat and join the discussion. More details can be found here: #SavingsChat: Managing Student Loans and Saving.

 Additional articles of interest:

From CNBC:   Repayment Strategies for Your Student Loans

From The New Republic:  When Millenials Can’t Move Out of Their Parents’ Basements the Entire Economy Suffers

From US News Personal Finance: Should You Consolidate Your Student Loan Debt?

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